By James Putzel
A CAPTIVE LAND is the 1st significant paintings to deal with those questions, pertaining to formerly unpublished Philippine and US govt records and drawing on interviews with executive representatives, landowners and peasants. It deals a brand new and unique research of the level of landlessness, possession, and poverty. It highlights the importance of the clash among conservative and liberal methods to reform.
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Extra resources for A Captive Land: The Politics of Agrarian Reform in the Philippines
More important to this study, Puritanism conforms to and even reinforces rather than overcomes, as usually supposed, the general historical pattern of religious–political organizations to move from oppositional anti-authoritarianism to official authoritarianism, including state terrorism (Gibbs 1989). In particular, this was dramatically witnessed in the 1640s 34 Curiously, unlike Weber, this is what Comte intimates in his observations about Protestantism and Calvinism or Puritanism in particular.
In his view, Weber explained this paradox by showing “how certain types of Protestantism became a fountainhead of incentives that favored the rational pursuit of economic gain” (Bendix 1977:57). 34 Generally, Weber seems to overlook or downplay the observed salient fact that virtually all, even the most antidemocratic or totalitarian, religious and political movements display a nominal or real anti-authoritarian tendency demanding “freedom,” “democracy” and “rights” while in, as Comte puts it, official opposition, or what Simmel calls referring to Protestantism “protest” against existing sacred and secular powers—yet authoritarian dispositions destroying and denying these same values to others once become such authorities.
Its political authoritarianism is primarily manifested and founded in its specific attempt at the mastery of the world of politics. Puritanism attempted or realized total mastery of politics seeks to turn Puritans into potential or real totalitarian “masters of the world” a la Cromwell cum the “Lord Protector of the Realm” following the Puritan Revolution in England, both of the domestic and global political system, and all others their servants, subjects, or instruments. Puritanism considers politics, just as nature, economy, and civil society, part of this world and thus amenable to, as Tocqueville implies, its sectarian mastery or religiously factional, in Madison’s meaning,1 domination.
A Captive Land: The Politics of Agrarian Reform in the Philippines by James Putzel