By Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the background, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval international.
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Additional info for A History of the Crusades, Volume V: The impact of the crusades on the Near East
49. AbQ-1-FidA', Al-mukhtasar, lll, 12. 50. Sib! lbn-aJ-Jauzi, Mir'at az-zami111, p. 378. SJ. s were forced to wear. It was first imposed by the Utnai)-ad caliph 'Umar II (717-720). Among tbe ~bbAsids, H&riin ar-Rashid was in 807 tbe first 10 reenact some of the old discriminatory measures, which reached. their culmination under al-Mutawakkil (847-$61): ai-Maqrizi, As-suillk /i-ma'rifat duwal al-mulilk, ed. Mustafa M. Ziada, I (Cairo. 1956). 136. 52. lbn-abi·U~ibi'ah, 'Uylin, II, 112-IIS. 53. , p.
901). In physics and technology the twelfth century was not Jacking in skill. Abii-1-Fatl} 'Abd-ar-Ralpnan al-Khazini, who flourished during the first quarter of the century, was the author of the Sinjari astronomical tables, which gave the positions of the stars for the year lllS-1116, and the latitude of the city of Merv. He also wrote a re. markable book on mechanics, hydrostatics, and physics, dealing with the specific gravities of many liquids and solids, leaning largely on the works of al-Blruni (d.
79. 80. , 11· 1, 216. Cf. , l, 337- 338. , 11·1, 298; 11·2 (Baltimore, 1931), 632. Jubillr, Ri~lah, pp. 270-271. Sarton, op. , 11-2, 631-632. Ch . FTB CENTURY 23 figure in this field in the twelfth century was at-Tughra'i, •• who was put to death about 1121 on a charge of atheism. Several factors spurred Arab interest in geography. There was the need of Moslem communities to determine the direction of the Ka'bah both for orienting mosques toward it and for the individual faithful to face it at the time of prayer; the interest in establishing correct latitudes and longitudes for astrological purposes and practice; the practical problems of pilgrims from the whole eastern hemisphere, traveling to Medina and Mecca; and the normal demands of commerce and trade by land and sea.
A History of the Crusades, Volume V: The impact of the crusades on the Near East by Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard