By Sheila Fitzpatrick, Lynne Viola
The Stalin period has been much less obtainable to researchers than both the previous decade or the postwar period. the fundamental challenge is that in the Stalin years censorship limited the gathering and dissemination of knowledge (and brought bias and distortion into the information that have been published), whereas within the post-Stalin years entry to data and libraries remained tightly managed. therefore it isn't fantastic that one of many major manifestations of glasnost has been the hassle to open up documents of the Nineteen Thirties. during this quantity Western and Soviet experts aspect the untapped capability of assets in this interval of Soviet social background and in addition the hidden traps that abound. the whole diversity of assets is roofed, from memoirs to reputable files, from urban directories to automated information bases.
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Extra info for A Researcher's Guide to Sources on Soviet Social History in the 1930s
T h e second medicine collected in this performance represents another theme of N d e m b u ritual—that of representing the patient's inauspicious condition. This is the mulendi tree. It has a very slippery surface, from which climbers are prone to slip (ku-selumuka) and come to grief. In the same way the patient's children have tended to "slip o u t " prematurely. But the "glossiness" (ku-senena) of this tree also has therapeutic value, and this side of its meaning is promi nent in other rites and treatments, for its use makes the " d i s e a s e " (musong'u) slip away from the patient.
I n this chapter I shall be mainly concerned with the social referents of symbols that also represent aspects of sexuality. T h e fusion of a plurality of sociocultural referents with a plurality of o r g a n i c referents (including those with a sexual character) in a single visible representation, invested by believers with an extra o r d i n a r y p o w e r , a n d possessing a new quality of h u m a n communi cation, is a n i m p o r t a n t characteristic of religious symbols. To sayt h a t e i t h e r set of referents, cultural or organic, is " b a s i c " or " p r i m a r y , " a n d t h a t the other is reducible to it, is to overlook the q u a l i t a t i v e difference from either set presented by the pattern of their i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e .
THE C U R A T I V E PROCESS The rites in the makela follow a processual pattern. T h e first phase consists of a passage from the cool to the hot ikela, the woman leading and the m a n following. At the hot ikela the doctors mingle their splashings of medicine with exhortations to any witches or curselayers to remove their inimical influences. Isoma: the doctor beside the calabash splashes the patients with medicine, while the men stand on the right of the tunnel's longi tudinal axis singing the kupunjila " s w a y i n g " song.
A Researcher's Guide to Sources on Soviet Social History in the 1930s by Sheila Fitzpatrick, Lynne Viola