By William Frederick Durand
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Extra info for Aerodynamic Theory: A General Review of Progress Under a Grant of the Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics
5) 1 KUTTA, Uber eine mit den Grundlagen des Flugproblems in Beziehung stehende zweidimensionale Striimung. Sitzungsbericht d. Kgl. bayer. Akad. d. -phys. , 2. 25 and 42, 1910. 7) In addition allowance must be made for the effect of surface friction. This discussion has shown that the front edge of a flat plate introduces an additional drag, which is comparatively small only for small angles of incidence and correspondingly small coefficients of lift. It will therefore be desirable, when using airfoils whose shapes approximate to those of flat plates, i.
6°, the flow has already separated over the larger part of the suction side; the suction has collapsed and the measurements of force (Fig. 23) reveal a strong increase of the profile drag. 6°. This results from diminished sub-pressure and air velocity on the suction side, but at the same time the lift is considerably diminished. 0° the lift is approximately zero. The distribution of pressure results in a negative lift at the front part and a positive lift at the back part of the airfoil (the stagnation point is here situated on the suction side).
In order to obtain a large lift-drag ratio, the surface friction for a given lift must be kept as small as possible. , Systematische Untersuchungen an Joukowski-Profilen. Zeitschr. f. Flugtechnik u. Motorl. 225, 1927. SECTION 9 21 also makes the drag component of the normal pressure smalP. At any point on the upper side the lift contribution is the same as the subpressure at that point. On the pressure side the positive pressure is a measure of the lifting force. Since the sub-pressure is connected with increased velocity and the positive pressure with diminished velocity in accordance with Bernoulli's equation (Division B), and since for equal thicknesses of the boundary layer and similar distributions of velocity the surface friction is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity, it follows that a favorable effect on the lift-drag index is obtained if the lift is effected as much as possible by pressure on the pressure side rather than by suction on the upper side.
Aerodynamic Theory: A General Review of Progress Under a Grant of the Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics by William Frederick Durand