By Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu
Low Reynolds quantity aerodynamics is critical to a couple of average and man-made flyers. Birds, bats, and bugs were of curiosity to biologists for years, and lively research within the aerospace engineering neighborhood, inspired via curiosity in micro air cars (MAVs), has been expanding speedily. the first concentration of this booklet is the aerodynamics linked to fastened and flapping wings. The booklet give some thought to either organic flyers and MAVs, together with a precis of the scaling laws-which relate the aerodynamics and flight features to a flyer's sizing at the foundation of easy geometric and dynamics analyses, structural flexibility, laminar-turbulent transition, airfoil shapes, and unsteady flapping wing aerodynamics. The interaction among flapping kinematics and key dimensionless parameters similar to the Reynolds quantity, Strouhal quantity, and lowered frequency is highlighted. many of the unsteady elevate enhancement mechanisms also are addressed, together with modern vortex, swift pitch-up and rotational stream, wake seize, and clap-and-fling.
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Extra info for Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers
16. The relationship between weight and wing loading. Adopted from Liu (2006). 2 Wingspan Often, when flapping animals are studied, parameters of interest are related to the body mass m of the animal. Using the dimensional argument method, assuming geometric similarity for the animals considered, one can determine a relation between the wingspan and the mass. 704m1/3 (birds). 3 Wing Area Norberg (1990) reports that the wing area between groups of animals shows larger variations than the wingspan.
1 for all birds other than hummingbirds. 4 Wing Loading Regarding wing loading, although the overall correlation shown in Eq. 7) seems reasonable, Greenewalt (1975) found that, in many cases, the relation between wing loading and mass increases slower than indicated in Eq. 7). , the Passeriforms, the Shorebirds, and Ducks, do not follow the 1/3 law. 1, for hummingbirds, the wing loading is almost independent of body mass; hence different species can have the same wing loading. 2. All gulls and their relatives have long, slender wings and streamlined bodies, so it was reasonable to assume geometric similarity.
Consequently flow separation is not encountered until the AoA becomes high. For low Reynolds number aerodynamics, the flow is initially laminar and is prone to separate even under a mild adverse pressure gradient. Under certain circumstances, as discussed next, the separated flow reattaches and forms a laminar separation bubble (LSB) while transitioning from a laminar to a turbulent state. Laminar separation can modify the effective shape of an airfoil and consequently influence the aerodynamic performance.
Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers by Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu