By Roger D. Norton
Ready less than the aegis of the nutrition and Agriculture association of the United countries (FAO), this article provides a clean and complete examine agricultural improvement coverage. It presents a transparent, systematic assessment of significant periods of coverage matters in constructing nations and discusses the rising foreign consensus on possible techniques to the problems.
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Elevated agricultural productiveness is an immense stepping stone at the course out of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, yet farmers there face great demanding situations enhancing creation. terrible soil, inefficient water use, and a scarcity of entry to plant breeding assets, nutritious animal feed, top of the range seed, and gasoline and electrical energy - mixed with the most severe environmental stipulations in the world - have made yields in crop and animal creation a long way reduce in those areas than global averages.
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The strategy also must improve the economic well-being of lower income groups and other disadvantaged groups, including women. Otherwise, it loses social viability. • Fiscal sustainability. Policies, programs and projects whose complete sources of ﬁnancing are not identiﬁed should not be undertaken. e. ways to foster cost recovery. • Institutional sustainability. Institutions created or supported by policy should be robust and capable of eventually standing on their own. For example, ﬁnancial institutions which are just credit channels to farmers and ranchers, and which do not have deposit-raising capabilities of their own, are not likely to survive over the longer term.
A few of the more prominent forms of expenditure have been investment in infrastructure for purposes such as irrigation, crop storage, transportation and marketing, direct provision of credit to producers and subsidization of private credit, the funding of research, extension and seed production, ﬁnancing the deﬁcits incurred by programs of purchasing grains from farmers at high prices and selling them to consumers at lower prices, and direct payments under land setaside programs or other support programs.
This ﬁgure is taken from R. D. Norton, ‘Integration of Food and Agricultural Policy with Macroeconomic Policy: Methodological Considerations in a Latin American Perspective’, FAO Economic and Social Development Paper No. 111, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1992. 6. These principles were applied, for example, in developing Guyana’s National Development Strategy and Estonia’s National Strategy for Sustainable Agricultural Development. 1 The role of agricultural programs in national economic development.
Agricultural Development Policy: Concepts and Experiences by Roger D. Norton