By Bill Hubbard Jr.
For an individual who has checked out a map of the us and puzzled how Texas and Oklahoma acquired their Panhandles, or flown over the yank heartland and marveled on the giant grid spreading out in all instructions lower than, American barriers will yield a welcome treasure trove of perception. the 1st booklet to chart the country’s development utilizing the boundary as a political and cultural concentration, invoice Hubbard’s masterly narrative starts by way of explaining how the unique 13 colonies geared up their borders and determined that unsettled lands may be held in belief for the typical good thing about the folks. Hubbard is going directly to show—with assistance from images, diagrams, and enormous quantities of maps—how the thought developed that unsettled land may be divided into rectangles and bought to person farmers, and the way this oblong survey unfold outward from its origins in Ohio, with surveyors drawing instantly strains around the face of the continent. Mapping how each one country got here to have its present form, and the way the kingdom itself shaped inside its current borders, American obstacles will supply historians, geographers, and basic readers alike with the attention-grabbing tale in the back of these fifty distinct jigsaw-puzzle items that jointly shape the USA.
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It was the business of the Royal Naval Observatory to So there you are, standing recording as many other celes- on the bank of the Delaware in tial events as your schedule 1784, looking up at Jupiter with would allow, then averaging the your best telescope. 39 How, though, do you deter- your clock, you point the instru- can calculate what time your mine the precise time for your ment at the sun, maneuvering clock would have read at the position on the earth? You’ve the scope until the sun is in the moment of solar noon.
But at least water comes out of the ground and starts flow- the location of the 35th parallel had been estab- ing. But which of the many springs that converge lished—a fact important for us here, because as to form a river is the true source of that river? 25 CHApTER ONE two The Idea of a National Domain Emerges By about 1760 all thirteen colonies had roughly year, but before the final peace in 1763, France established their present borders along the sea- was able to draw Spain into the war on its side, coast and up to the frontier of white settlement.
On Pennsylvania’s team were Thomas 0IJP3JWFS Hutchins, who, as the first Geographer of the 1FOOTZMWBOJB CPSEFST 1JUUTCVSHI United States, would later begin the Rectangu- ¡PGMPOHJUVEF lar Survey; and David Rittenhouse, America’s 1IJMBEFMQIJB preeminent maker of precision instruments. 37), marked it with a squared-up oak post set in a mound of stones, and retired from the field to await the next surveying season. 37 THE COLONIES STAKE CLAIMS TO LAND IN THE WEST 29 THE TASK AT HAND Finding Longitude To know where to set that Up until very recently, the only let the world know “the time Greenwich ephemeris (that’s oaken post, the commissioners way to know the number of at Greenwich,” and the way it the name for a book of celestial needed two pieces of informa- degrees between your position did that was to calculate and tables; the plural is ephemeri- tion: the longitude of the west and that of Greenwich was to publish tables listing the precise des) you know that tonight bank of the Delaware River know the difference between Greenwich time of future celes- Io will be eclipsed by Jupiter.
American Boundaries: The Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey by Bill Hubbard Jr.